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Words empty as the wind are best left unsaid.

~Homer

A picture is worth a thousand words.

~Napoleon Bonaparte

Tuesday, 10 January 2012

ETRUSCAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ORIENTAL TALISMANS

Let’s go back to ETRUSCAN, GREEK, ROMAN, AND ORIENTAL TALISMANS
To view blog with talismans click here and  here

The symbol of the Bull's Head (see Illustration No. 108, Plate VIII) was commonly worn as earrings, for success in love and friendship, and as the god of Hades could lengthen or shorten men's lives as he thought fit, the Bull's Head was also worn by men for Strength and Long Life.
My oh my….even bull head is a talisman. We have Egyptian goddess Hathor as a cow.

Hathor with sacred eye in papyrus.


We have in Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh), was a bull-deity worshipped in the Memphis region.
Apis was the most important of all the sacred animals in Egypt, and, as with the others, its importance increased as time went on. Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the mourning at his death, his costly burial, and the rejoicings throughout the country when a new Apis was found.
Mariette's excavation of the Serapeum at Memphis revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging from the time of Amenophis III to that of Ptolemy Alexander. At first each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it. Khamuis, the priestly son of Ramesses II (c. 1300 B.C.), excavated a great gallery to be lined with the tomb chambers; another similar gallery was added by Psammetichus I.

The cult of the Apis bull started at the very beginning of Egyptian history, probably as a fertility god connected to grain and the herds. In a funerary context, the Apis was a protector of the deceased, and linked to the pharaoh. This animal was chosen because it symbolized the king’s courageous heart, great strength, virility, and fighting spirit. The Apis bull was considered to be a manifestation of the pharaoh, as bulls were symbols of strength and fertility, qualities which are closely linked with kingship ("strong bull of his mother Hathor" was a common title for gods and pharaohs).

Occasionally, the Apis bull was pictured with her sun-disk between his horns, being one of few deities associated with her symbol.
When Osiris absorbed the identity of Ptah, becoming Ptah-Seker-Osiris, the Apis bull became considered an aspect of Osiris rather than Ptah. Since Osiris was lord of the dead, the Apis then became known as the living deceased one. As he now represented Osiris, when the Apis bull reached the age of twenty-eight, the age when Osiris was said to have been killed by Set, symbolic of the lunar month, and the new moon, the bull was put to death with a great sacrificial ceremony.

There is evidence that parts of the body of the Apis bull were eaten by the pharaoh and the priests to absorb the Apis's great strength. Sometimes the body of the bull was mummified and fixed in a standing position on a foundation made of wooden planks. Bulls' horns embellish some of the tombs of ancient pharaohs, and the Apis bull was often depicted on private coffins as a powerful protector. As a form of Osiris, lord of the dead, it was believed that to be under the protection of the Apis bull would give the person control over the four winds in the afterlife.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apis_%28god%29

                  The sacred Apis bull shown on a Twenty-first dynasty Egyptian coffin.


                                             Statue of Apis, 30th Dynasty, Louvre


The Myth of the Bull Apis Fresco Borgia Apartments, Hall of the Saints

 
Stele dedicated by the doorman of Horudja temple to the God-bull Apis. We see winged sun disk- symbol of Horus.

The Greeks had little respect for animal-headed figures, and so a Greek statue was chosen as the idol, and proclaimed as anthropomorphic equivalent of the highly popular Apis. It was named Aser-hapi (i.e. Osiris-Apis), which became Serapis, and was said to be Osiris in full, rather than just his Ka.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apis_%28god%29
Bust of the Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis, Roman copy of an original by Bryaxis which stood at the Serapeion of Alexandria, Vatican Museums.


We have seen Zeus as a bull, St. Luke also has a bull.  To view click here and here

Let’s look at Crescent Moon tlalisman.

The most common symbol of Isis was a Crescent Moon, which was worn by Roman women upon their shoes as a safeguard from witchcraft and to prevent the evil spirits of the moon from afflicting them with delusions, hysteria, or lunacy; also to attract the good-will of Isis that they might be successful in love, happy in motherhood, and fortunate in life. From this Crescent symbol (Illustration No. 113, Plate VIII) the Horseshoe undoubtedly became regarded as a Talisman, and as such was used by the Greeks and Romans, who nailed it with the horns upward as a charm against the Plague.
              Jewel by the name of king Osorkon II, featuring the family of Osiris 874 -  850     BCE (22nd dynasty) (Isis right) Louvre


                                                      Isis breast feeding Horus


We have goddess Astrate depicted with crescent moon.

Astarte's name was first recorded about 1478 BC, but her cult was firmly established by then. The cult spread westward from Phoenicia into Greece, Rome, and as far as the British Isles. Prophets of the Old Testament condemned her worship because it included sexual rituals, and sacrifices of firstborn children and newborn animals to her.

Her other counterparts are Isis, Hathor of Egypt, Kali of India, and Aphrodite and Demeter of Greece.
http://www.themystica.com/mythical-f...s/astarte.html
                                                                               Astrate

Tanit was a Phoenician lunar goddess. Stele with Tanit's symbol in Carthage's Tophet, including a crescent moon over the figure.

                                                                
                                                               Goddess Hecate
  
                       Diana as Personification of the Night by Anton Raphael Mengs
                                                            
                                                         The statue of Selene

But we also have Virgin of Guadalupe depicted with Crescent Moon.



THE FISH Talisman (Illustrations Nos. 96, 97, Plate VII) is a symbol of Hathor (who controlled the rising of the Nile), as well as an Amulet under the influence of Isis and Horus. It typified the primeval Creative principle and was worn for domestic felicity, Abundance, and general Prosperity.



The Tophet of Carthage, also called Tophet of Salammbo is an ancient sacred area dedicated to the Phoenician gods Tanit and Baal located in the Carthage Salammbo, near the Punic ports . This tophet "hybrid sanctuary and necropolis" , includes a large number of graves of children who, according to the interpretations, have been killed or buried in this place after their untimely death. 
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tophet_de_Carthage

                                                Stèle, Tophet de Carthage, Tunisie

From ancient regional mythology, most names of ancient gods and goddesses in this region come from Germanic origins, particularly in the North. Many of the deities are the same as West Germanic deities, especially in the north: Wodan is Dutch for Woden/Odin, the god of war and leader of the Wild Hunt.

                                                       Germanic Jove Wodan 


Ichthys, from Koine Greek: ἰχθύς, (capitalized ΙΧΘΥΣ or ΙΧΘΥϹ) is the Greek word for "fish". (Alternative transliterations include Ichthus and Ikhthus. In English, this refers to a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile of a fish, used by early Christians as a secret symbol and now known colloquially as the "sign of the fish" or the "Jesus fish
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ichthys

Funerary stele of Licinia Amias, one of the most ancient Christian inscriptions. Upper tier: dedication to the Dis Manibus and Christian motto in Greek letters ΙΧΘΥC ΖΩΝΤΩΝ / Ikhthus zōntōn ("fish of the living"); middle tier: depiction of fish and an anchor; lower tier: Latin inscription “LICINIAE AMIATI BE/NEMERENTI VIXIT”. Marble, early 3rd century CE. From the area of the Vatican necropolis, Rome.
                        Mosaic in Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo. Last Supper


Hellenistic religion

Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was the complex system of astrology, which sought to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenistic philosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditional religion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenistic_religion

By the late Egyptian historical period, after the occupations by the Greeks and the Romans, Isis became the most important and most powerful deity of the Egyptian pantheon because of her magical skills. Magic is central to the entire mythology of Isis, arguably more so than any other Egyptian deity.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isis
In 1888, the Isis-Urania Temple was founded in London, where the rituals decoded from the cipher manuscripts were developed and practiced. We have connection with Crowley.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeti...he_Golden_Dawn

Kemetic Wicca is a variation of Gardnerian Wicca that follows an Egyptian pantheon. SomeKemetic groups focus on the trinity of Isis, Orsiris and Horus and utilize prayers and spells found the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead.
http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/gods...ses/p/Isis.htm

Today she is the second name in an energy chant sometimes used in Wicca: "Isis, Astarte, Diana, Hecate, Demeter, Kali, Inanna."
http://www.egyptiandreams.co.uk/astarte.php

Neopaganism

In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult.[38] This theory influenced the Neopagannotion of the Horned God, as an archetype of male virility and sexuality. In Wicca, the archetype of the Horned God is highly important, as represented by such deities as the Celtic Cernunnos, Indian Pashupati and Greek Pan.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_%28god%29