Pages


Words empty as the wind are best left unsaid.

~Homer

A picture is worth a thousand words.

~Napoleon Bonaparte

Friday, 18 November 2011

Typhon, Hercules, Nemean Lion, Hydra, Cerberus

Typhon was the last son of Gaia, fathered by Tartaus, and the most deadly monster of Greek mythology. He was known as the "Father of all monsters"; his wife Echidna was likewise the "Mother of All Monsters."
In classic mythology, below Uranus (sky),Gaia  (earth), and Pontus (sea) is Tartarus, or Tartaros, (a deep place). It is a deep, gloomy place, a pit, or an abyss used as a dungeon of torment and suffering that resides beneath the underworld.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartarus

Zeus darting its lightning on Typhon.  ca. 550 BC.
Typhon attempts to destroy Zeus at the will of Gaia, because Zeus had imprisoned the  Titans. Typhon initially overcame Zeus in their first battle, and tore out Zeus' sinews. However, Hermes recovered the sinews and restored them to Zeus. Typhon was finally defeated by Zeus, who trapped him underneath Mount Etna.
Typhon fathered several children by his niece, Echidna, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto:
Orthrus, a fearsome two-headed hound. Theogony, 306ff. Orthrus, and his master, Eurytion, son of Ares and the Hesperid Erytheia, guarded the fabulous red cattle of Geryon. Both were slain, along with Geryon, when Heracles stole the red cattle.
The Sphinx was sent by Hera to plague the city of Thebes. She was the most brilliant of Typhon's children, and would slay anyone who could not answer her riddles (possibly by strangling them). When Oedipus finally answered her riddle, she threw herself into the ocean in a fit of fury and drowned.

The Nemean Lion was a gigantic lion with impenetrable skin. Selene, the moon goddess, adored the beast. Heracles was commanded to slay the Lion as the first of his Twelve Labors. First, he attempted to shoot arrows at it, then he used his great club, and was eventually forced to strangle the beast. He would then use the Lion's own claws to skin it, whereupon he wore its invulnerable hide as armor.

Cerberus, another one of Typhon's sons was a three-headed dog that was employed by Hades as the guardian of the passage way to and from the Underworld. According to Hesiod, he was the son of Orthrus and Echidna.

ladon was a serpentine dragon, known as a drakon. According to Hesiod, Ladon was the son of Phorcys and ceto, instead of Typhon and Echidna. Regardless of his parentage, Ladon entwined himself around the tree in the Garden of the Hesperides at the behest of Hera, who appointed him the garden's guardian. He was eventually killed by Heracles.

The Lemaen Hydra, another one of Typhon's daughters, terrorized a spring at the lake of Lerna, near Argos, slaying anyone and anything that approached her lair with her noxious venom, save for a monstrous crab thatwas her companion. She was originally thought to have nine heads, and any neck, if severed,would give rise to two more heads, her ninth head was immortal. She and her crab were slain by Heracles as the second of his Twelve Labors - he cut off her heads and burnt the neck so that she could not regenerate,and crushed her ninth head under a rock, (the crab being accidentally crushed underneath Heracles' heel).


Typhon's last child was his daughter, Chimera. Chimera resembled a tremendous, fire-breathing lioness with a goat's head emerging from the middle of her back, and had a snake for a tail. She roamed the ancient kingdom of Lycia, particularly around Mount chimera (possibly near Yanartas), bringing bad omens and destruction in her wake, until she was slain by Bellerophon and Pegasus at the behest oflobates.


 ECHIDNA, a daughter of Tartarus and Ge (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2), or of Chrysaor and Callirrhoë (Hesiod. Theog. 295), and according to others again, of Peiras and Styx. (Paus. viii. 18. § 1.) Echidna was a monster, half maiden and half serpent, with black eyes, fearful and bloodthirsty.

http://www.theoi.com/Ther/DrakainaEkhidna1.html

 In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules. Extraordinary strength,  courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess with females were among his characteristic attributes. Many popular stories were told of his life, the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles. Heracles was commanded by the Delphic oracle to perform tvleve labours for King Eurystheus of Mycenae. Hercules was worshiped throughout Greece in the classical age as a god.



The core of the story of Hercules has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld.
1.    To kill the Nemean lion.
2.    To destroy the  Lemaen Hydra.
3.    To capture the Ceryneian Hind.
4.    To capture the Erymanthian Boar.
5.    To clean the Augean Stables.
6.    To kill the Stymphalian Birds.
7.    To capture the Cretan Bull.
8.    To round up the Mares of Diomedes.
9.    To steal the Girdle of Hyppolite.
10. To herd the Cattle of Geryon.
11. To fetch the Apples of Hesperides.
12.To capture Cerberus.
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heracles 

Heracles as a boy strangling a snake (marble, Roman artwork, 2 nd century CE)


Gilded bronze Roman 'Hercules of the Theater of Pompey" Vatican



Herkules, Bertel Thorvaldsen, 1843

Château de Versailles, salon d'Hercule
Hercules Protects Painting from Ignorance and Envy, Cornelis Lens
Hercules, and Ceres, Paolo Veronese

Hans von Aachen
The first of his Twelve Labours- HERACLES & THE NEMEIAN LION
 
Hesiod, Theogony 327 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :
"The Nemeian Lion whom Hera, the queenly wife of Zeus, trained up and settled among the hills of Nemeia, to be a plague to mankind. There he preyed upon the tribes of the indwelling people, and was as a king over Tretos and Apesas and Nemeia. Nevertheless, the force of strong Heracles subdued him."
Callimachus, Fragment 108 (from Scholiast on Pindar’s Nemean Ode 10. 1) : 
"[The Nemean Lion] to whom [Hera] the wrathful spouse of Zeus gave Argos to keep, albeit it was her own possession, to the end that it might be a stern labour for [Herakles] the bastard offspring of Zeus."
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 2 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
"Alexandros of Mindos says that a serpent born of Ge (Earth) fought with Herakles against the Nemean lion; fed by Heracles, it accompanied him to Thebes and stayed in a tent."
http://www.theoi.com/Ther/LeonNemeios.html     
                    







Heracles and the Nemean Lion. Side A from a black-figure amphora, 560–540 BC


Francisco de Zurbarán



Hercules and the Nemean lion in Villa Farnesina ceiling, Rome

Beham, (Hans) Sebald Hercules killing the Nemean Lion 1548



Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 24 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[Constellation] Leo. He is said to have been put among the stars because he is considered the king of beasts. Some writers add that Hercules’ first Labour was with him and that he killed him unarmed. Pisandrus and many other writers have written about this."

Berlin


Herkules von Giuseppe Volpini, 1717

Hesiod’s's Theogony and  Aeschylus’ Prometheus Unbound both tell that Heracles shot and killed the eagle that tortured Prometheus (which was his punishment by Zeus for stealing fire from the gods and giving it to mortals). Heracles freed the Titian from his chains and his torments. Prometheus then made predictions regarding further deeds of Heracles.
During the course of his life, Heracles married four times. His first marriage was to Megara, whose children he murdered in a fit of madness.
His second wife was Omphale, the Lydian queen or princess to whom he was delivered as a slave.
Hercules and Deianira, painting by Jan Gossart. 
His third marriage was to Deianira, for whom he had to fight the river god Achelous (upon Achelous' death, Heracles removed one of his horns and gave it to some nymphs who turned it into the comucopia.) Soon after they wed, Heracles and Deianira had to cross a river, and a centaur named Nessus offered to help Deianira across but then attempted to rape her. Enraged, Heracles shot the centaur from the opposite shore with a poisoned arrow (tipped with the Lernaean Hydra's blood) and killed him. As he lay dying, Nessus plotted revenge, told Deianira to gather up his blood and spilled semen and, if she ever wanted to prevent Heracles from having affairs with other women, she should apply them to his vestments. Nessus knew that his blood had become tainted by the poisonous blood of the Hydra, and would burn through the skin of anyone it touched.
Later, when Deianira suspected that Heracles was fond of lole, she soaked a shirt of his in the mixture, creating the poisoned shirt of Nessus. Heracles' servant, Lichas, brought him the shirt and he put it on. Instantly he was in agony, the cloth burning into him. As he tried to remove it, the flesh ripped from his bones. Heracles chose a voluntary death, asking that a pyre be built for him to end his suffering. After death, the gods transformed him into an immortal, or alternatively, the fire burned away the mortal part of the demigod, so that only the god remained. After his mortal parts had been incinerated, he could become a full god and join his father and the other Olympians on Mount Olympus. He then married Hebe, his fourth and last wife.

Heracles and his child Telephos. Marble, Roman copy of the 1st–2nd century CE

HYDRA This monster, like the lion, was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna, and was brought up by Hera. It ravaged the country of Lernae near Argos, and dwelt in a swamp near the well of Amymone: it was formidable by its nine heads, the middle of which was immortal. Heracles, with burning arrows, hunted up the monster, and with his club or a sickle he cut off its heads; but in the place of the head he cut off, two new ones grew forth each time, and a gigantic crab came to the assistance of the hydra, and wounded Heracles. However, with the assistance of his faithful servant Iolaus, he burned away the heads of the hydra, and buried the ninth or immortal one under a huge rock. Having thus conquered the monster, he poisoned his arrows with its bile, whence the wounds inflicted by them became incurable. Eurystheus declared the victory unlawful, as Heracles had won it with the aid of Iolaus. (Hes. Theog. 313, &c.; Apollod. ii. 5. § 2; Diod. iv. 11; Eurip. Herc. Fur. 419, 1188, Ion, 192; Ov. Met. ix. 70; Virg. Aen. viii. 300; Paus. ii. 36. § 6, 37. § 4, v. 5. § 5; Hygin. Fab. 30.)

Heracles fighting the Lernaean Hydra. Caeretan black-figure hydria, ca. 525 BC.

Valencia, Spain201 and 250 AD
 
Antonio Pollaiuolo,  Hercules and the Hydra
Francisco  de Zurbaran

John Singer Sargent, Hercules

Cornelis Cort, Engraving about the second labour of Heracles: slay the Lernaean Hydra
Beham, (Hans) Sebald (1500-1550): Hercules slaying the Hydra




Via the Greco- Buddhist culture, Heraclean symbolism was transmitted to the far east. An example remains to this day in the Nio guardian deities in front of Japanese Buddhist temples. Herodotus connected Heracles both to Phoenician god Melgart and to the Egyptian god  Shu. Temples dedicated to Heracles abounded all along the Mediterranean coastal countries. For example the temple of Heracles Monoikos(i.e. the lone dweller), built far from any nearby town upon a promontory in what is now the Côte d'Azur, gave its name to the area's more recent name, Monaco.


The protector Vajrapni of the Buddha is another incarnation of Heracles (Gandhara, 1st century CE)

Cerberus  in Greek and Roman mythology, is a multi-headed hound (usually three-headed) which guards the gates of the Underworld, to prevent those who have crossed the river Styx.

Cerberus was the offspring of Echidna, a hybrid half-woman and half-serpent, and Typhon, a fire-breathing giant whom even the Olympian gods feared.  from ever escaping. 

Heracles, Cerberus and Eurystheus. Side A from a black-figured Caeretan hydria, ca. 525 BC.

Illustration of Dante's Inferno, Canto 6
William Blake

Cerberus - Extract to G. Doré in Dante, Inferno: Canto 6, lines 24-26


 Relief of Cerberus on portico of castle Friedrichsfelde in Tierpark Berlin zoo, Berlin, Germany.


Cerberus guarding the entrance to the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm

Thursday, 17 November 2011

God Uranus, Cronus/Saturn

Edited June 23, 2012
Uranus  (Ancient Greek meaning "sky"), was the primal Greek god personifying the sky. His equivalent in Roman mythology was Caelus.  In Ancient Greek literature, according to Hesiod in his Theogony, Uranus or Father Sky was the son and husband of Gaia, Mother Earth. Uranus and Gaia were ancestors of most of the Greek gods, but no cult addressed directly to Uranus survived into Classical times.

In the Olympian creation myth, as  Hesiod tells it in the Theogony, Uranus came every night to cover the earth and mate with Gaia, but he hated the children she bore him. Hesiod named their first six sons and six daughters the Titans, the three one-hundred-armed giants the Hecatonchires, and the one-eyed giants the Cyclopes.

 The Cyclops Polyphemus, Annibale Carracci


Gustave Moreau, Galatea

Gustave Moreau, Galatea


Soon after they were born their father Uranus threw them into the depths of Tartarus because he saw them as hideous monsters. The Hekatonkheires remained there, guarded by the dragon Campe, until Zeus rescued them, advised by Gaia that they would serve as good allies against Cronus and the Titans. During the  War of the Titans the Hekatonkheires threw rocks as big as mountains, one hundred at a time, at the Titans, overwhelming them.     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus_(mythology)


Campe was a dragon with a woman's head and torso and a scorpion-like tail.
In classic mythology, below Uranus (sky), Gaia (earth), and Pontus (sea) is Tartarus, or Tartaros( deep place). It is a deep, gloomy place, a pit, or an abyss used as a dungeon of torment and suffering that resides beneath the underworld. In the Gorgias, Plato (c.400 BC) wrote that souls were judged after death and those who received punishment were sent to Tartarus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartarus

THE TITANS were six elder gods named Cronus (in Roman mythology Saturn),  Coeus,  Crius, Japetus, Hyperion and Oceanus, sons of Uranus (Sky) and Gaia (Earth), who ruled the cosmos before the Olympians came to power. When their father was king he imprisoned six giant brothers of the Titanes--the Cyclops and Hekatonkheires--in the belly of Earth.  Their names were Briareus the Vigorous, also called Aigaion , Latinised as Aegaeon, the "sea goat", Cottus  the Striker or the Furious, and Gyges  or Gyes  the Big-Limbed.
 Briareus is mentioned in the Divine Comedy poem Inferno as one of the Giants in the Ninth Circle of Hell (Inferno XXXI.99)
Titans and giants, including Ephialtes on the left, in Gustave Dore's illustrations to Dante's Divine Comedy.


 Gaia was incensed and incited her Titan sons to rebel. Led by Cronus, five of the six brothers, laid an ambush for their father, seizing hold of him as he descended to lie upon Earth. Four of them--Hyperion,  Crius, Coeus  and Japetus -were posted at the four corners of the earth to hold Sky fast, while Cronus in the centre castrated him with an adamantine sickle. After they had seized control of the cosmos, the Titans released their storm giant brothers from Gaia's belly, only to lock them away shortly afterwards in the pit of Tartaros.

Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 3 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Now Ge (Earth), distressed by the loss of her children [the Cyclopes & the Hekatonkheires] into  Tartarus, persuaded the Titans to attack their father, and she gave Cronus a sickle made of adamant. So all of them except Oceanus set upon Uranus (Heaven), and Cronus cut off his genitals, tossing them into the sea . . . Thus having overthrown Uranus’ rule the Titans retrieved their brothers from Tartarus and gave the power to Cronus
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Titanes.html

Cronus (Saturn) castrates his father Uranus, Giorgio Vasari
                                                                                     Cronus

Saturn as Saturday
Villa at Orbe-Bosceaz, Orbe, Switzerland C3rd AD

Kronos-Saturn represents Saturday in a mosaic depicting the seven days of the week. He rides on a stool carried by two winged gods.


Ivan Akimov, Saturn

Caravaggio Saturn



Angera castle ( Varese ). Hall of Justice - Fresco showing Saturn

After Uranus was deposed, Cronus re-imprisoned the Hecatonchires and Cyclopes in Tartarus. Uranus and Gaia then prophesied that Cronus in turn was destined to be overthrown by his own son, and so the Titan attempted to avoid this fate by devouring his young. Zeus,  through deception by his mother Rhea, avoided this fate.


Cronus and Rhea
Metropolitan Museum, New York City, USA
 ca 475 - 425 BC 


The goddess Rhea, standing on a rock, hands the omphalos stone wrapped in swaddling cloth over to Cronus, as a substitute for her infant Zeus. The Titan raises his hand to receive the mock child which he will devour. He holds a royal sceptre in his other hand.

 Saturn, Jupiter's father, devours one of his sons, Poseidon by Rubens



 Francisco de Goya, Saturn devouring his Son

Wenzel Hollar, Saturn






CRONUS KING OF THE GOLDEN AGE

Cronus ruled over the first generation of mankind during the so-called Golden Age of Man, a time of prosperity, peace and general ease. When Zeus came to power these had been replaced by the Silver, who in turn were succeeded by the Bronze, the Hero, and the Iron races. In the time of Cronus it was said the animals spoke with a human voice. He  ruled during the mythological Golden Age, until he was overthrown by his own son, Zeus and imprisoned in Tartarus. 


Callimachus, Iambi Fragment 192 (from Oxyrhynchus Papyri 7) : 
"[In the Golden Age when Cronus ruled :] It was the time when birds and creatures of the sea and four-footed animals could talk in the same way as the Promethean clay . . (lacuna) in the time of Cronus, and even before. Just is Zeus, yet unjust was his ruling when he deprived the animals of their speech, and--as though we were in a position to give part of our voice to others--diverted it to the race of men."

Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"Cronus, since he was the eldest of the Titans, became king and caused all men who were his subjects to change from a rude way of living to civilized life, and for this reason he received great approbation and visited many regions of the inhabited earth. Among all he met he introduced justice and sincerity of the soul, and this is why the tradition has come down to later generations that he men of Cronus’ time were good-hearted, altogether guileless, and blest with felicity. His kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honor; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturn] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions elsewhere that the Carthaginians sacrificed children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honor of this god and many places bore his name. And because of the exceptional obedience to laws no injustice was committed by any one at any time and all the subjects of the rule of Cronus lived a life of blessedness, in th
unhindered enjoyment of every pleasure. To this the poet Hesiod also bears witness in the following words: ‘And they who were Cronus’ day, what time he reigned in heaven, lived like gods, no care in heart, remote and free from ills and toils severe, from grievous sicknesses and cares; old age lay not upon their limbs, but they, equal in strength of leg and arm, enjoyed endless delight of feasting far from ills, and when death came, they sank in it as in a sleep. And many other things were theirs; grain-giving earth, unploughed, bore for them fruit abundantly and without stint; and glad of heart they dwelt upon their tilth throughout the earth, in midst of blessing manifold, rich in their flocks, loved by the blessed gods.’ This then, is what the myths have to say about Cronus."

 
Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 88 (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The Golden Age (Aetas Aurea) was that first age [of mankind] which unconstrained, with heart and soul, obedient to no law, gave honor to good faith and righteousness. No punishment they knew, no fear; they read no penalties engraved on plates of bronze; no suppliant throng with dread beheld their judge; no judges had they then, but lived secure. No pine had yet, on its high mountain felled, descended to the sea to find strange lands afar; men knew no shores except their own. No battlements their cities yet embraced no trumpets straight, no horns of sinuous brass, no sword, no helmet then--no need of arms; the world untroubled lived in leisured ease. Tellus (Earth) [Gaia] willingly, untouched, not wounded yet by hoe or plough, gave all her bounteous store; men were content with nature’s food unforced, and gathered strawberries on the mountainside and cherries and the clutching bramble’s fruit, and acorns fallen from Jove’s [Zeus’] spreading tree. Springtime it was, always, forever spring; the gentle zephyrs with their breathing balm caressed the flowers that sprang without a seed; anon the earth untilled brought forth her fruits, the unhallowed fields lay gold with heavy grain, and streams of milk and springs of nectar flowed and yellow honey dripped from boughs of green. When Saturn [Cronus] fell to dark Tartarus  and Jove [Zeus] reigned upon the earth, the Silver Race (Proles Argentea) replaced the Gold, inferior, yet in worth above he tawny bronze."
Plato, Laws 713a (trans. Bury) :
"[Plato employs the myth of the Golden Age of Cronus in his description of an ideal state ruled by a philosopher-elite :] Long ages before even cities existed . . . there existed in the time of Cronus, it is said, a most prosperous government and settlement . . . Well, then, tradition tells us how blissful was the life of men in that age, furnished with everything in abundance, and of spontaneous growth. And the cause thereof is said to have been this : Cronus was aware of the fact that no human being is capable of having irresponsible control of all human affairs without becoming filled with pride and injustice; so, pondering this fact, he then appointed as kings and rulers for our cities, not men, but beings of a race that was nobler and more divine, namely, Daimones (Spirits). He acted just as we now do in the case of sheep and herds of tame animals: we do not set oxen as rulers over oxen, or goats over goats, but we, who are of a nobler race, ourselves rule over them. In like manner the god, in his love for humanity, set over us at that time the nobler race of Daimones who, with much comfort to themselves and much
to us, took charge of us and furnished peace and modesty and orderliness and justice without stint, and thus made the tribes of men free from feud and happy. And even today this tale has a truth to tell, namely, that wherever a State has a mortal, and no god, for ruler, there the people have no rest from ills and toils; and it deems that we ought by every means to imitate the life of the age of Cronus, as tradition paints it." [Cf. The Daimones of Hesiod's Works and Days above.]
  
Fountain of Saturn
CRONUS GOD OF TIME


Cronus, the god who devoured his own children (Poseidon representing the sea, Demeter the earth, Hera the air, and Hestia heavenly fire) symbolized the destructive ravages of time, which consumed all. As the King of the Golden Age, and of the Islands of the Blessed, he represented the passing of the ages. The name Cronus, means simply time (khronos).


Temple of  Saturn de la villa Torlonia

 Statue of Cronos in the Central Cemetery of Bogotá


Edzell Castle, Angus, Scotland. One of the seven planetary deities carvings.



CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH EL OLAM (PHOENICIAN)


 Cronus was identified by the Greeks with the Phoenician god of time El Olam (El of Eternal Time), spelt Oulomos in Greek. The child sacrifices offered this god underlined the connection in the Greek mind.



Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 5. 66. 4 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"His [Cronus'] kingdom was strongest in the western regions, where indeed he enjoyed his greatest honor; consequently, down even to comparatively recent times, among the Romans [called by them Saturn] and the Carthaginians [elsewhere the author mentions the Carthaginians sacrifice of children to the god], while their city still stood, and other neighbouring peoples, notable festivals and sacrifices were celebrated in honor of this god and many places bore his name."

CRONUS IDENTIFIED WITH SATURN (ITALIAN)

Cronus was identified with the Italian agricultural god Saturn, in whose honor the mid-winter Saturnalia festival was celebrated.


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 3 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Now Ge (Earth), distressed by the loss of her children [the Cyclopes & the Hekatonkheires] into  Tartarus, persuaded the Titans to attack their father, and she gave Cronus a sickle made of adamant. So all of them except Oceanus set upon Uranus (Heaven), and Cronus cut off his genitals, tossing them into the sea . . . Thus having overthrown Uranus’ rule the Titans retrieved their brothers from Tartarus and gave the power to Cronus."


Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 4 - 9 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"[1 & 2] [The Titan] Cronus . . . then married his sister [Titans] Rhea. Because both Ge (Earth) and Uranus (Sky) had given him prophetic warning that his rule would be overthrown by a son of his own, he took to swallowing his children at birth. He swallowed his first-born daughter Hestia, then Demeter and Hera, and after them Hades and Poseidon. Angered by this, Rhea, when she was heavy with Zeus, went off to Crete and gave birth to him.



Virgil, Aeneid 7. 48 ff (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :
"Faunus ( Greek god Pan) was son of Picus, who called Saturn his father--yes, Saturn originated their line."
CRONUS, PHILYRA & THE BIRTH OF CHIRON



Eumelus or Arctinus, Titanomachia Fragment 6 (from Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius 1. 554) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
 "The author of the War of the Giants says that Cronus took the shape of a horse and lay with Philyra, the daughter of Oceanus. Through this cause Chiron was born a centaurs: his wife was Khariklo."



Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 9 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"The Titans had children . . . Chiron, a double-formed centaurs, was born to Cronus and Philyra."



Ovid, Metamorphoses 6. 126 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"Saturn [Cronus], as a horse begot the centaur Chiron."


 
Chiron and Achilles in a fresco from Herculaneum (Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples).
The Education of Achilles, by Eugene Delacroix


Uranus and Váruṇa


Uranus is connected with the night sky, and Varuna is the god of the sky and the celestial ocean, which is connected with the Milky Way. His daughter Lakshmi is said to have arisen from an ocean of milk, a myth similar to the myth of Aphrodite. Both Lakshmi and Aphrodite are associated with the planet Venus.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uranus_(mythology)

The God Varuna on his mount makara, 1675-1700