Words empty as the wind are best left unsaid.


A picture is worth a thousand words.

~Napoleon Bonaparte

Thursday, 15 December 2011

Cybele, Isis, Serapis, Fortuna, Hades, Horn of plenty, Wheel of fortune, Pine cone

                                               Edited Dec. 19, 2011

I have seen From darkness to light: The Mystery religions of Ancient Greece by Joseph Campbell. He said that the pine cone in Vatican was removed from Roman Field of god Mars. The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio).
Pigna is the name of rione IX of Rome. The name means "pine cone" in Italian, and the symbol for the rione is the colossal bronze pine cone, the Pigna, which decorated a fountain in Ancient Rome next to a vast Temple of Isis. There water flowed copiously from the top of the pinecone. The Pigna was moved first to the old basilica of St. Peter's, where Dante saw it and employed it in the Commedia as a simile for the giant proportions of the face of Nimrod. In the 15th century it was moved to its current location, the upper end of Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere, which is now usually called in its honour the Cortile della Pigna, linking the Vatican and the Palazzo del Belvedere.
                            The Pigna in Cortile Belvedere, Vatican
So, pine cone was located next to the temple of Egyptian Isis. However, I have found that it was a temple of both Isis and Serapis.

Serapis was an anthropomorphic god created by the Greek pharaoh Ptolemy I. Ptolemy I chose Serapis to be the official god of Egypt and Greece. He hoped a common religious base would unify the two peoples and ease tension in the country. Serapis' attributes were both Egyptian and Hellenistic. Serapis became very popular and his cult quickly spread from its center in Alexandria. A Roman historian insisted that the god was originally from Asia Minor. However, Egypt probably provided the essential attributes of Serapis. Serapis' Egyptian nature can be seen in his roots, which were drawn from the cults of Osiris and the Apis bull. These cults had been combined prior to the reign of Ptolemy I. At that time, a sacred bull of Memphis called Osorapis was worshipped after its death. Osorapis was an agricultural god whose cult emphasized the Egyptian principles of life after death. The early Greek pharaohs seemed to have been drawn to Osorapis as a god who seemed to fuse the myriad of Egyptian deities and possessed aspects that were easily fusible with the gods of the Greeks.
The Hellenistic-Egyptian god Serapis and his attributes.

With his (i.e. Osiris's) wife Isis, and their son Horus (in the form of Harpocrates), Serapis won an important place in the Greek world, reaching Ancient Rome, with Anubis being identified as Cerberus. In Rome, Serapis was worshiped in the Iseum Campense, the sanctuary of the goddess Isis located in the Campus Martius and built during the Second Triumvirate.
According to Plutarch, Ptolemy stole the cult statue from Sinope, having been instructed in a dream by the "unknown god" to bring the statue to Alexandria, where the statue was pronounced to be Serapis by two religious experts. One of the experts was of the Eumolpidae, the ancient family from whose members the hierophant of the Eleusinian Mysteries had been chosen since before history, and the other was the scholarly Egyptian priest Manetho, which gave weight to the judgement both for the Egyptians and the Greeks.
Plutarch may not be correct, however, as some Egyptologists allege that the Sinope in the tale is really the hill of Sinopeion, a name given to the site of the already existing Serapeum at Memphis. Also, according to Tacitus, Serapis (i.e., Apis explicitly identified as Osiris in full) had been the god of the village of Rhakotis before it expanded into the great capital of Alexandria.
Serapis with a basket/grain-measure, on his head, a Greek symbol for the land of the dead

Interestingly enough, I have found a pine cone in the basket of Cybele. I talked about Cybele and her connections with Dionysus.

Cybele) was the great Phrygian Mother of the Gods, a primal nature goddess worshipped with orgiastic rites in the mountains of central and western Anatolia. The Greeks closely identified her with their own mother of the gods, the goddess Rhea.
 Detail Cybele with basket and pine cone

 I have also found that pine cone was a talisman.
The Pine Cone, the symbol of Cybele the goddess of abundant benefits, was worn by her votaries for Health, Wealth, and Power, and all good and necessary things which flow in abundance without ceasing from her influence. She had many names, and was called by the Greeks, Pasithea, signifying Mother, as she was the great mother of all the gods. Her priests were famous for their magical powers, and it was customary to fix her symbol, the Pine Cone, on a pole in the vineyards, to protect them from blight and witchcraft, a practice still to be seen in Italy at the present time, and presumably this was the origin of the Pine Cones which surmount the gateways at the entrances of some of the carriage drives of old country seats (see Illustration No. 117, Plate VIII); it also survives as an ornament to the spikes of iron railings enclosing the grounds of old-fashioned houses on the outskirts of many of our provincial towns.

And another darling with pine cone.

Nisroch  is the Assyrian god of agriculture,[verification needed] in whose temple Sennacherib was worshipping when he was assassinated (2 Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). Josephus calls him Dagon.

In Joseph Campbell ‘s interpretation the pine cone is not important but the seeds of pine cone as seeds represent consciousness. He argued that New Adam is realized after the old Adam died. I don’t agree with his interpretation considering the fact that pine cone has been found in ancient world from India to North America as I have posted. Those ancient gods were blood thirsty, demanding human and animal sacrifices that is documented in all religions. They didn’t care about New Adam……. LOL!

I haven't noticed earlier that talisman no 118 is a horn of plenty, an attribute of goddess Fortuna.
The horn of plenty also has a pine cone. A talisman no 106 connects us with Aztecs I have posted this month.

Fortuna ( Greek Tyche) was widely worshipped as the guardian spirit of a city's good fortune. TYCHE was the goddess or spirit of fortune, chance, providence and fate. She was usually honoured in a more favourable light as Eutykhia, goddess of good fortune, luck, success and prosperity. As such she was usually depicted crowned with the turrets of a city-wall and holding a cornucopia (horn of plenty) brimming with the fruits of the earth.
. In most of her representations she is barely distinguishable from Demeter: the crown, cornucopia and Ploutos-child being common attributes of both goddesses. Indeed Tyche (Lady Fortune) often appears to be merely an aspect of the goddess Demeter.
An interesting painting of  Allegory of Fortune. LOL

 Allegory of Fortune (formerly attributed to Giovanni Bellini)

We also see pine cone in Fortuna's horn of plenty. 

  Angelo Bronzino, Allegory of Happiness

An allegory of Truth and Time (1584-5), Royal Collection, London, Annibale Carracci

The cornucopia (in Latin also cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce.

Pluto, the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions, was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades, who holds a drinking horn instead.

 Persephone and Hades. ca. 440-430 v

 Dionysus (sitting left, at the end of the couch) and Pluto’s (sitting right, holding a cornucopia) surrounded by satyrs and maenads. A satyr is helping and supporting a drunken Hephaistos with his hammer (right). Eros plays with a goose at the bottom. Attic red-figured krater, ca. 370–360 BC. 
 Pluto with a cornucopia and Demeter with a scepter and plough. By the Orestes Painter. 440-430 BC
 2nd century statuette of the Hellenistic god Harpocrates, son of Isis, in Dion's Archaeological Museum.

  Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Neptun

 Ancient Roman allegory of Nile River, re-used in modern times for the fountain in piazza del Campdoglio square, Rome, Italy. Picture by Giovanni Dall'Orto, April 7 2008.

Andrea Mantegna
The Circumcision of Jesus, detail Andrea Mantegna

  M. Parish church: Fresco - Motive of the lauretanic litany on Virgin Mary - Angel with cornucopia
Ignudo,  Fresco on the Sistine Chapel ceiling

 We also have a horn of plenty and pine cone on coat of arms of Pope Innocent X Pamphilj, from the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (1651) in Rome. The supporting hand is that of the river-god Danube.

1800's -Masonic- Steward Bullion/Leather Apron. This is an Great, Rare, Early Masonic/Freemasonry apron. This wonderful old piece has a Great, Early design, with a Silver Bullion embroidered All-Seeing Eye & Cornucopia.

 Colossal Statue with Cornucopia, Snake and Portrait of Antinous

  Artemis, copy after a Greek original of the 4th century BC

 Statue of Harpocrates ( 2nd century AD )

 Heracles holding a cornucopia,
We also have wheel of fortune
  The Tenth Key of Tarot" is taken from the book by Eliphas Levi, La Clef des grands mysteres.
The Dharmacakra, "Wheel of Dharma", a symbol for Bodhi Dharma ...or Buddh'ism in the West

We have a wheel in Konarak Sun temple

  Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century Sun Temple (also known as the Black Pagoda), at Konark, in Orissa. It was constructed from oxidizing and weathered ferruginous sandstone by King Narasimhadeva I (1236-1264 CE) of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty. The temple is one of the most well renowned temples in India and is a World Heritage Site.
 'Surya Majapahit' or 'The Sun of Majapahit' is the emblem common found in temples and ruins dated from Majapahit era. Some scholars suggested that this sun disc was the royal emblem of Majapahit, probably functioned as the en:coat of arms of Majapahit empire. The sun disk is stylized with carved ray of light; surrounded by eight Lokapala gods, the eight en:Hindu gods that guarded eight cardinal points of the universe. There's other version of Majapahit's Sun, such as sun disc with sun god en:Surya riding a celestial horse or chariot, to just a simple sun disc with stylized ray of light. (Collection of en:National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

And we have a wheel in Vatican.

Cathedral Siena
 Cathedral Siena

 And we find  in Sacrificial stone or Cuauhxicalli of Tizoc , Aztecs.