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Words empty as the wind are best left unsaid.

~Homer

A picture is worth a thousand words.

~Napoleon Bonaparte

Friday, 30 December 2011

Eos/Aurora, Phosphorus,Hesperus, St. Augustine, Lucifer and Satan

                                                               Edited, May 11, 2012

EOS, in Latin Aurora, the goddess of the morning red, who brings up the light of day from the east. She was a daughter of Hyperion and Theia or Euryphassa, and a sister of Helios ( the sun) and Selene (the moon). (Hes. Theog. 371, &c.; Hom. Hymn in Sol. ii.) Ovid (Met. ix. 420, Fast. iv. 373)
Eos had an unquenchable desire for handsome young men, some say as the result of a curse laid upon her by the goddess Aphrodite. 

She was sometimes depicted riding in a golden chariot drawn by winged horses, at other times she was shown borne aloft by her own pair of wings.
http://www.theoi.com/Titan/Eos.html

                                                        EOS THE DAWN 
Museum Collection: Johns Hopkins University Museum, Date: ca 440 BC
The winged goddess of the dawn, from a painting depicting her pursuit of the youth Kephalos.


 Gobelins Room, Cathedral of Puebla, Puebla de los Ángeles, Puebla state, Mexico

                                                           Eos, Jan Rayzner

 Apollo and Aurora, Gerrard de Lairesse

 Eos, Evelyn de Morgan

Her lovers included Orion, Phaethon, Cephalus and Tithonus, three of which she ravished away to distant lands.

 Francesco Solimena, Aurora, Roman goddess of the dawn, bids goodbye to her lover Tithonus. Aurora is about to illuminate the darkness of night.
                                                    
                                            Cephalus und Aurora, Nicolas Poussin

                                                        Stanislaw Wyspianski, Eos


Hesiod, Theogony 378 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.) :

"And Eos (Dawn) bare to Astraios (the Starry) the strong-hearted Winds, brightening Zephyrus (West Wind), and Boreas (North Wind), headlong in his course, and Notus (South Wind),--a goddess mating in love with a god. And after these Erigenia (the Early-Born) bare the star Eosphorus (Dawn-bringer) [the planet Venus], and the gleaming stars with which heaven is crowned."

Homer, Iliad 23. 226 ff (trans. Lattimore) (Greek epic C8th B.C.) :
"At that time when Eosphorus (Dawn Star) passes across earth, harbinger of light, and after him Eos (Dawn) of the saffron mantle is scattered across the sea."

Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros), a name meaning "Light-Bringer", is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance. Φαοσφόρος (Phaosphoros) and Φαεσφόρος (Phaesphoros) are forms of the same name in some Greek dialects.
Another Greek name for the Morning Star is Ἑωσφόρος (Heōsphoros), which means "Dawn-Bringer". The form Eosphorus is sometimes met in English, as if from Ἠωσφόρος (Ēōsphoros), which is not actually found in Greek literature, but would be the form that Ἑωσφόρος would have in some dialects. The Latin name Lucifer is an exact translation of the Greek term Φωσφόρος.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorus_%28morning_star%29

 The Moon-goddess Selene accompanied by the Dioscuri, or Phosphoros (the Morning Star) and Hesperos (the Evening Star). Marble altar, Roman artwork, 2nd century CE. From Italy. Louvre

Ibycus, Fragment 331 (from Scholiast on Basil, Genesis) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) :
"Eosphorus (Dawn-Bringer) and Hesperus (Evening-star) are one and the same, although in ancient times they were thought to be different. Ibycus of Rhegium was the first to equate the titles."

Alphonse Mucha, Morning Star. From The Moon and the Stars Series

Alphonse Mucha, Evening Star. From The Moon and the Stars Series

Pindar, Isthmian Ode 4. 43 ff (trans. Conway) (Greek lyric C5th B.C.) :
"Her beauty shines forth in gleaming splendor like Eosphorus (the dawn-star), beyond all other lights of heaven."
  
Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 19 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :
"If Luna [Selene the moon] is a goddess, then Lucifer (the Morning Star) also and the rest of the Wandering Stars (Stellae Errantes) will have to be counted gods as well."
Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 20 (trans. Rackham) (Roman rhetorician C1st B.C.) :
"The star of Venus, called in Greek Phosphoros (the light-bringer) and in Latin Lucifer when it precedes the sun, but when it follows it Hesperos."

Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2. 20 :
"Most marvelous [of all the stars of heaven] are the motions of the five Stellae, falsely called planets or Stellae Errantes (Wandering Stars) . . . Lowest of the five Stellae and nearest to the earth is the star of Venus, called in Greek Phosphorus (the light-bringer) and in Latin Lucifer when it precedes the sun, but when it follows it Hesperus; this planet completes its orbit in a year, traversing the zodiac with a zigzag movement as do the Stellae above it, and never distant
more than the space of two signs from the sun, though sometimes in front of it and sometimes behind it . . . This regularity therefore in the Stellae, this exact punctuality throughout all eternity notwithstanding the great variety of their courses, is to me incomprehensible without rational intelligence and purpose. And if we observe these attributes in the Stellae, we cannot fail to enrol even them among the number of the gods." 

Ovid, Metamorphoses 2. 273 ff : (43 BC – AD)
"As Lucifer (the morning star) more brilliant shines than all the stars, or as golden Phoebe (the Moon) outshines Lucifer (the morning star)."



Ovid, Metamorphoses 4. 627 ff :
"Until Lucifer (the morning star) hould wake Aurora [Eos the dawn], and Aurora call forth the chariot of the day [of Helios the sun]."


Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 42 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"The fourth star is that of Venus [Aphrodite], Luciferus [Hesperus] by name . . . In many tales it is recorded that it is called Hesperus, too. It seems to be the largest of all stars . . . It is visible both at dawn and sunset, and so properly has been called both Lucifer [Eosphorus] and Hesperus."

 Hesperus as Personification of the Evening by Anton Raphael Mengs

                                  Phosphorus And Hesperus, Evelyn de Morgan


As an adjective, the Greek word is applied in the sense of "light-bringing" to, for instance, the dawn, the god Dionysus, pine torches, the day; and in the sense of "torch-bearing" as an epithet of several god and goddesses, especially Hecate but also of Artemis/Diana and Hephaestus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphorus_%28morning_star%29

Gold phaler (ornament worn by horses), one of a pair, representing Dionysus. Syria, 3rd century BC.

Homer didn't call Eosphorus Lucifer but Cicero (C1st B.C). 

Let's look at madame Blavatsky.

Excerpt from The Secret Doctrine by H. P. Blavatsky — Vol. 2


VOL. 2, PAGE 233 HOLY SATAN.

The true esoteric view about “Satan,” the opinion held on this subject by the whole philosophic antiquity, is admirably brought out in an appendix, entitled “The Secret of Satan,” to the second edition of Dr. A. Kingsford’s “Perfect Way.” No better and clearer indication of the truth could be offered to the intelligent reader, and it is therefore quoted here at some length: —

“1. And on the seventh day (seventh creation of the Hindus),* there went forth from the presence of God a mighty Angel, full of wrath and consuming, and God gave him the dominion of the outermost sphere.†

2. “Eternity brought forth Time; the Boundless gave birth to Limit; Being descended into generation.”‡

4. “Among the Gods is none like unto him, into whose hands are committed the kingdoms, the power and the glory of the worlds:”

5. “Thrones and empires, the dynasties of kings,§ the fall of nations, the birth of churches, the triumph of Time.”

For, as is said in Hermes, “Satan is the door-keeper of the Temple of the King; he standeth in Solomon’s porch; he holdeth the key of the Sanctuary, that no man enter therein, save the Anointed having the arcanum of Hermes” (v. 20 and 21).

These suggestive and majestic verses had reference with the ancient Egyptians and other civilized peoples of antiquity to the creative and generative light of the Logos (Horus, Brahma, Ahura-Mazda, etc., etc., as primeval manifestations of the ever-unmanifested Principle, e.g., Ain-Soph, Parabrahm, or ZeruanaAkerne — Boundless Time — Kala)

VOL. 2, PAGE 234 THE SECRET DOCTRINE

33. “Satan is the minister of God, Lord of the seven mansions of Hades” . . . .
The seven or Saptaloka of the Earth with the Hindus; for Hades, or the Limbo of Illusion, of which theology makes a region bordering on Hell, is simply our globe, the Earth, and thus Satan is called —
33 “. . . . the angel of the manifest Worlds.

It is “Satan who is the god of our planet and the only god,” and this without any allusive metaphor to its wickedness and depravity. For he is one with the Logos, “the first son, eldest of the gods,” in the order.

Let's look at Wikipedia.

Use of the name "Lucifer" for the Devil stems from applying to the Devil what Isaiah 14:3–20 says of a king of Babylon whom it calls Helel (הֵילֵל, Shining One), a Hebrew word that refers to the Day Star or Morning Star (the Latin term for which is lucifer) In 2 Peter 1:19 and elsewhere, the same Latin word lucifer is used to refer to the Morning Star, with no relation to the Devil. In Revelation 22:16, Jesus himself is called the Morning Star, but not "Lucifer", even in Latin.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucifer

How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 
Isaiah 14: 12

( from King James  Version)

How you have fallen from heaven, O morning star, son of the dawn! 
You have been cast down to the earth,
you who once laid low the nations!
 Isaiah 14: 12
 New International Version, 1984

 How you are fallen from heaven,
  O Day Star, son of Dawn!
 How you are cut down to the ground,
 you who laid the nations low! 
 Isaiah 14: 12
(from English Standard Version)

How you are fallen from heaven,
O shining star, son of the morning!
You have been thrown down to the earth,
you who destroyed the nations of the world.
Isaiah 14: 12
( from New Living Translation 2007)
 More  versions  http://bible.cc/isaiah/14-12.htm

Let's look at 2 Peter 1: 19

We also have the prophetic message as something completely reliable, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts.
20 Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation of things. 
21 For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.
2 Peter 1: 19-21
(from New International Version)

19We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:  20Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.
 21For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
 2 Peter 1: 19-21
(from King James Version)

Wikipedia in not accurate at all. There is no Lucifer at 2 Peter but "morning star".

It is uncertain when precisely the Isaiah passage, which in its Latin translation contains the name "Lucifer", began to be applied to Satan, but it was certainly used in this way by 3rd-century Origen, and some scholars claim that the identification of "Lucifer" with the Devil was first made by Origen, Tertullian and Augustine of Hippo.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucifer

So who was Augustine of Hippo?

Augustine of Hippo  Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; November 13, 354 – August 28, 430), also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, St. Austin, St. Augoustinos, Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed, was Bishop of Hippo Regius (present-day Annaba, Algeria). He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province. His writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity.
According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith." In his early years he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism of Plotinus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustine_of_Hippo
                                 Saint Augustin, Philippe de Champaigne
                                                     Sandro Botticelli
                                                     Simone Martini
Augustine Aurelius, Bishop of Hippo, arguably is considered the most influential theologian after St. Paul. As a pastor and bishop in North Africa, Augustine was one of the most prolific church writers, dealing with the many theological issues that faced the Church in his day. As a teacher, he influenced the course of the Church, and as a bishop, he influenced the politics of Rome. Without a doubt, Augustine it is considered a great man. But does he deserve this reputation?

Facts
The history of Augustine’s life is pretty straightforward and well-known. Son of a pagan father and Christian mother, Augustine grew up knowing the truth of the gospel, but led his own life, his father taking delight in his son’s sexual escapades. Augustine became a well-known orator and studied the pagan philosophies of Plato. Augustine became a Christian at age 32, after discussions about Christianity with a friend, and hearing a child’s voice telling him to pick up a scroll and read it. This conversion story is one the most famous in Christendom.

Augustine has been called the Great Teacher of the Church, and the Doctor of Grace, because of his influence on the doctrines of the Church. First of all, believe it or not, Augustine couldn’t read Greek! It is not required, in ministers, that they be able to read Greek. This means that Augustine was not able to understand what Paul or Peter or John wrote, without relying on the sayso a translator. Which Augustine did. Augustine relied on the translation of his close ally, Jerome of Palestine. Jerome was the man who translated the Bible from the Hebrew and Greek, into Latin. Unfortunately, Jerome was an extremely biased, didactic theologian, and in at least one theological area, that of justification, made an unfortunate translation that has affected the Church ever since. Augustine took a word from Jerome’s Latin Vulgate and gave us a Roman court model for justification, rather than the model that Paul presented, in the original Greek, that of a king declaring a subject in right standing with his/her king. 

A second problem with Augustine is where he got much of his theology from. Before becoming a Christian, Augustine studied two different religions/philosophies, that he allowed to influence him, and brought their doctrines with him into the Church.
For nine years, Augustine was a Manichean, a devotee of of the teachings of Mani, founder of a Persian moral cult. Like the Gnostics of the first century, Mani and his followers were dualistic, teaching that the flesh was sinful and impure, while the spirit was light and life. As a Manichean, this teaching was a comfort to Augustine, as it let him blame his continued sexual sin on his lower fleshy nature, but still be moral by emphasizing the separateness of flesh and spirit.

Augustine’s years with the Manicheans left its impact on the Church, as he brought this teaching into the the Church through his teaching on Original Sin. A. T. Overstreet, in his on-line book, “Are Men Born Sinners?, The Myth of Original Sin,” notes:
Augustine’s nine years with them [the Maniceans] accustomed him to regard human nature as essentially evil and human freedom as a delusion. Augustine next fell under the influence of Neo-Platonism, and his theological views were strongly influenced by this philosophy as well. However, his doctrine of sin shows the obvious influence of the Gnostic teachings of Manichaeism, in which he assumes the most ridiculous teaching of all the heathen philosophies the teaching that matter can be sinful. And this is the source of his doctrine that sin can be passed on physically from one person to another.
Harnack says:
We have, finally, in Augustine’s doctrine of sin a strong Manichaean and Gnostic element; for Augustine never wholly surmounted Manichaeism.
and…
Augustine’s doctrine of sin, with his belief in the inherent sinfulness of the physical constitution, is wholly Manichaean. His idea that sin is propagated through the marriage union, that sexual desire is sin and that sexual lust in procreation transmits sin is also Manichaean. Augustine built his doctrine of original sin upon this premise that sexual lust in procreation transmits sin.

 To read an article http://thekenwillisblog.wordpress.com/2010/02/01/augustine-saint-or-manichean-neo-platonism-gnostic/

According to Wikipedia, it was Augustine  that made the identification of "Lucifer" with the Devil.  I have to check  Origen, Tertullian who were the first one to make that association.

It is getting more interesting as I learn more about fathers of the Church or saints.  LOL!

So who is satan?

He replied, "I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven.
Luke 10: 18 
(from New International Version)

And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightening fall from heaven.
Luke 10: 18
(from King James Version)

                        Satan,  Gustave Doré, in John Milton's Paradise Lost.

                                     William Blake, Satan inflicting boils on Job.

Let's look at a  black mass and satanism in art.

                                                          Black Mass XVI Century

Catherine Monvoisin and the priest Étienne Guibourg perform "Black Masses" for the mistress of King Louis XIV of France, Madame de Montespan (lying on the altar).1895
                                                    
  Martin van Maële. Illustration de La sorcière, ( sorceress or witch) 1911

 Martin van Maële. Illustration de La sorcière



                                                       Martin van Maele

 Martin van Maele, Illustration de La sorcière

 Martin van Maele, Illustration de La sorcière

                                   Hieronymus Bosch, Black Mass

Wood Engraving 15 from the Compendium Maleficarum, 1618

                       The Sigil of Baphomet: emblem of the Church of Satan

Codex Gigas

The Codex Gigas or the Devil’s Bible at the National Library in Stockholm is famous for two features.
First, it is reputed to be the biggest surviving European manuscript. (Codex Gigas means ‘giant book’.)
Secondly, it contains a large, full page portrait of the Devil.